This is the second program in the series of matrices related programming exercises in Java. In the last program, you have learned matrix multiplication and in this program, you will learn how to perform addition and subtraction of two matrices in Java. We'll create methods to calculate both sum and difference of two matrices in Java program. In Mathematics, a matrix is a rectangular array with two dimensions known as rows and columns. In Java, your can use a two-dimensional array to represent a matrix because it also has two dimensions rows and columns. Since a 2D array is nothing but an array of the array in Java, the length of the outer array is equal to the number of rows and length of sub-array is equal to the number of columns.
The natural way to compare String is the lexicographic way, which is implemented in the compareTo() method of String class, but sometimes you need to compare String by their length. You cannot use the default compareTo() method for that task, you need to write your own custom Comparator, which can compare String by length. Don't worry, It's easy to compare multiple String by their length, all you need to write is a Comparator which calculates their length using the length() method and compare them. Such comparator should return a positive value if first String has a length greater than second String, a negative value if the length of first String is less than the length of second String and zero if both String has the same length.
From the last couple of articles, I am writing about coding exercises for beginners e.g. yesterday you learned how to write a program from matrix multiplication in Java (see here) and a couple of days back, you have learned recursive binary search algorithm. To continue that tradition today I am going to show you how to write a program for calculating sum and difference of two complex numbers in Java. If you remember the complex number from you maths classes, it has two part real and imaginary and to add a complex number we add their real and imaginary part separately, similar to subtract complex number we minus their real and imaginary part separately. For example, if first complex number is A + iB and the second complex number is X + iY then the addition of these two complex number will be equal to (A +X ) + i(B + Y).