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Top 10 Open Source Frameworks & Libraries for Java Web Developers for 2024 [UPDATED]

Java programming language and platform has been fortunate in terms of frameworks, standards, and libraries, I guess which is one of the important reasons for its huge success. Apart from standard frameworks like Spring MVC for Web Development and Spring Boot Java backend servers, Swing for desktop GUI applications, JavaFX, Servlets and JSP, EJB, and JSF, there are a lot more open-source frameworks and libraries available for Java programmers. These Open source framework, not only helps and speed up development but also enforce use best practices required to build enterprise Java application and desktop application.

Frameworks like Spring, which, in my opinion, gives a much-needed boost to the Java platform, enforces the Dependency Injection design principle at the core, which is crucial to building a loosely coupled system.

Similarly, Struts and Spring MVC have made web development a lot easier, rather than just using Servlet and JSP. Java Programmer, both beginners and experienced, must know about these frameworks, they not only help them in their work but also to get a Job as more and more companies are adopting framework based development.

I have seen so many resumes that are not considered for interviews because there is no mention of Spring, Struts, or Maven. Though I don't agree with this practice because if you are good at programming, OOP design, and Java, you can quickly learn those, it does happen in the real world, and there is no harm in mentioning these frameworks in your Resume if you have learned them.

In this article, I will share the top 10 Java Frameworks for web developers, which include core Java framework, unit testing framework, Java web development framework, and, of course, build frameworks.

It's a good idea to at least know about these open-source Java libraries and frameworks so that you can learn them in detail when the need comes.

10 Essential Frameworks & Libraries for Java Web Developers

Here is my list of some of the necessary frameworks and libraries for Java web developers. The list includes web development frameworks like Spring MVC,  Quarkus, Struts, Seam, Primefaces Google Web Toolkit, and ORM tools like Hibernate, testing libraries like JUnit and Mockito along with Eclipse RCP platform for creating desktop GUI in Java.

Top 10 Open Source Frameworks & Libraries for Java Web Developers

1. Spring MVC

No doubt that Spring  MVC is the best Java web development framework to date. In many ways, Spring made Java development more comfortable, streamlined and gives it much-needed a boost. Spring, on its core, provides an IOC container, which takes responsibility for managing System objects and wiring them together, but that's just one of the Spring functionality.

Spring has a suite of libraries, which is crucial for enterprise Java development. Spring provides Spring Security, which is a top-class Security framework, provides an easy way to implement LDAP authentication, Open ID authentication, Control on concurrent active sessions, and several other useful features Out of the box.

Spring MVC is another pillar of the Spring framework, which provides an implementation of the Model View Controller design pattern, and also enforces several other Web-related best practices, like View Resolver.

The latest release of Spring 5 has also added support for Kotlin, the official language for Android development, and some reactive programming features, which is very useful for developing modern web applications.  Apart from these, there are a lot more Spring offers you, check Spring Masterclass to learn more about Spring.

best java web development framework

2. MicroNaut

Since most of the new web application development is happing on Cloud it's important to learn a Cloud-Native framework in 2024. Micronauts is a modern, full-stack framework for the cloud which can run natively on GraalVM. Micronaut is designed to be cloud-native and offers the following features which are key for modern web applications:
  1. Improved startup times and minimal memory footprint
  2. No Reflection usage and GrallVM support
  3. Reactive Non-Blocking HTTP Server
  4. Fast and EAsy Testing
  5. Messaging Integration
  6. Database Access is easier using Micronaut Data
  7. Easily integrates with NoSQL databases like Redis and MongoDB 
I strongly recommend you to learn MicroNaut in 2024 if you are keen on Cloud Native Java development. If you need resources then I suggest you check out Learn Micronaut - cloud-native microservices with Java course on Udemy. 

3. JUnit

JUnit is the best Unit testing framework for the Java application. Having JUnit on your resume makes a positive impression. Though JUnit is there for a long time and almost become part of Java application development, it took a big leap with JUnit 5.0, which uses annotation to write unit tests even easier.

JUnit 5.0 annotations added a lot of convenience and power to the unit tests, It makes it easy to write a unit test for checking Exceptions. Though TestNG is another useful Java testing framework, JUnit has its own place.

The latest version of JUnit, JUnit 5.0, also has some useful features which make your test more readable and robust. If you are serious about learning the unit testing skill to improve your career prospects, I suggest starting now, and the JUnit and Mockito Crash Course is the right place, to begin with.

4. Maven

I am not sure if you agree to mention Maven as a framework, but to me, it looks like a build framework. Before Maven, ANT was prevalent, and almost all companies have their own build framework based on ANT. Now, Maven rules.

The biggest strength of Maven is convention over configuration; with ANT, you need to define everything, like source directory, target directory, etc. Maven enforces a standard project structure and uses reasonable default values to simplify the build procedure.

Another thing, which makes Maven a great Java framework is the concept of maven repository and dependency management, It's super easy to include new dependency with Maven than managing a whole lot of JAR files.

If you don't know Maven, start learning it now. Use Eclipse IDE and M2Eclipse maven plug-in. It's worth learning. The Maven Quick Start is an excellent point to begin your journey, it's also a free course on Udemy.

Top 10 Open Source Frameworks and Libraries for Java Web Developers

5. Hibernate

Spring and Hibernate were some of the most desired skills set a couple of years back. Though EJB 3.0 spoiled the party a bit, Hibernate is still a great Java persistence framework and worth learning. Projects either use JEE or Spring for development, and Hibernate fits well with Spring.

Also, it's one of the pioneers in the Object Relational framework, known as the ORM framework. Now there is a couple of alternatives available, like TopLink, but Hibernate is still the market leader.

Hibernate is also a good skill in CV, and you are likely to see a couple of questions from Hibernate, like the difference between getting and load or saving vs. updating vs. persist during Java interviews for web development. If you want to learn more about the essential Hibernate feature, then Hibernate, and JPA Fundamentals is an excellent place to start with.

Top 10 Java Frameworks Every Programmer should learn

6. PrimeFaces

PrimeFaces is a Java Framework that provides the JSF component to develop a rich web application. PrimeFaces delivers a rich set of components for Java Server Faces 2.0, like HtmlEditor, AutoComplete, Dialog, etc.

It also has built-in support for Ajax-based upon JSF 2.0 Ajax APIs. PrimeFaces is lightweight and easy to use. It also has excellent community support, which is key to the success of any open-source framework.

Top 10 Java Frameworks for Web Development and UI

7. Seam

Seam is a Java web framework from JBoss. There are a lot of good reasons mentioned in Why Seam's page of Seam Framework. Some of them include Ajax support, the easiest way to use EJB 3.0, and the best way to leverage JSF.

Though I haven't used Seam yet in any professional projects, It seems a useful web framework, which demands evaluation.

Top 10 Open Source Frameworks and Libraries Java Web Developers

8. Google Web Toolkit (GWT)

GWT or Google Web Toolkit is one of the best Java Web Frameworks from Google. GWT allows you to build a rich Java web application by providing powerful user interface capabilities.

There are lots of plugins, tools, examples available from Google, which can help you to learn GWT quickly.

Though the learning curve is a bit more if you are coming from Spring or Struts background. GWT can be used to develop browser-independent AJAX-based applications.

9. Mockito

Mockito is a Java testing framework for creating mock objects. Though there are a couple more mock object frameworks like JMock and EasyMock, Mockito is one of the best and easy to learn. Mockito has clean and straightforward syntax but, at the same time, is rich enough to support that.

One of the drawbacks of Mockito is that it doesn't support mocking of static methods, but you can use combine Mockito with JMockit to do that.

Apart from JUnit for unit testing, learning one of the mock object frameworks gives a new edge to your unit testing capability, and if you are looking for an excellent resource to get going, then is Mockito Tutorial: Learn mocking with 25 Junit Examples a great place, to begin with.

Open Source Frameworks and Libraries Java Web Developers Can Learn in 2019

10. Eclipse RCP platform or JavaFX

Eclipse RCP is one of the best Java frameworks for developing a rich desktop application. By the way, when it comes to building desktop applications in Java, Swing rules, but Eclipse RCP is no way behind. It's free, has excellent tutorials and proper documentation.

I was not sure to keep this framework in this list for 2024 because its surely not a priority on 2024 but then I thought to just keep it rather than removing it altogether but I won't advise to learn this on priority unless you love to build on Eclipse RCP platform.

If you are keen on Java GUI development then JavaFX is still a better option then learning Eclipse RCP Platform as its picking pace and there is more community support available for JavaFX than Eclipse RCP Platform. 

You will even find more JavaFX resources like these JavaFX online courses to learn JavaFX better and use it on production. 

11. Struts 2.x

Before Spring, Struts was king of the Java web development framework. In his days, it was the best Java MVC framework and to date used in large companies. Web applications written during the early 2000 are mostly written on Struts.

Anyway, Struts has come a long way then. Struts 1.0 has gone, and today's Struts is mostly Struts 2.0, see the difference between Struts 1 and 2. Despite the immense popularity of Spring MVC, Struts 2 still holds its place.

It's good to develop simple web 2.0 applications. I believe legacy code with Struts 1.0 and the existing pool of Struts developers will keep this framework alive.

If you want to learn Struts 2 frameworks for your project, then Struts 2 Framework for Beginners is an excellent course to start with. There are not many courses out there to learn Struts, and this is the best one I have found.

12. Quarkus

This is another framework which is worth learning for Java developers in 2024. Quarkus takes Java development to next level by increasing speed and providing a native development experience with Java, that's why its called Quarkus - subatomic, supersonic Java. 

Quarkus provides a Kubernetes native Java tech stack tailored for OpenJDK JVM and GrallVM, it contains all the best of Java libraries and standards, especially optimized for Quarkus to provide a fast start and better performance. 

Quarkus is also updated to support Java 17 so you can use features like Recrods and Sealed classes while coding your next application in Java and Quarkus. And, if you want to learn Quarkus in 2024 and need resources then here is a list of Quarkus online courses for Java developers 

That's all on this list of Top 10 Java frameworks and Libraries guys. Java is rich, very rich, and there are a lot of open source web frameworks available in Java, It's often a good idea to do some Googling before choosing any web framework for development. Apart from the mentioned above, let us know which Java framework you have been using, which are your favorite ones.

Thanks for reading this article so far. If you find these open-source Java web development libraries useful, then please share them with your friends and colleagues. If you have any questions or feedback, then please drop a note.

P. S. - If you are new to Java web development and want to become a full-stack Java developer then I highly recommend you join Go Full-stack with Spring Boot and React course by fellow Java developer Ranga Rao Karnam on Udemy. It's a great hands-on course to become a full-stack Java developer in 2024.


  1. Make sure you look at some of the new kids on the block frameworks too! Spincast ( ) for example... A very flexible Java framework!

    1. Hi @Electrotype, thanks for suggestion, didn't know about that :-) keep in touch.


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