How to do Integration Testing in Spring Framework? @SpringBootTest Example Java

Hello guys, if you are wondering how to test your Spring Boot application then you have come to the right place. Earlier, I have shared popular Spring Boot Testing Interview Questions and Spring Security Interview Questions and In this article, I will show you examples to test your Spring Boot application using @SpringBootTest annotation, which allows you to write Integration tests. When I talk about spring boot integration testing, I am talking about launching an application in ApplicationContext and performing tests. For integration testing, Spring Framework has a specific test module. It's referred to as a spring test. If we're going to utilize spring-boot, we'll need to use spring-boot-starter-test, which uses spring-test and other dependencies inside.

We'll look at how to perform integration tests for a Spring Boot application in this post.

First of all, let's understand what integration testing is and what to test as part of integration testing in Spring.

What to test in Integration Testing?

  • An integration test is designed to see if different modules are properly bound and function as intended.

  • Integration tests should not use actual production requirements (e.g. database/network), but they should be able to imitate certain behaviors.

  • The application should run in ApplicationContext, and tests should be done there as well.

  • The @SpringBootTest annotation in Spring Boot launches the embedded server, establishes a web environment, and then allows @Test methods to do integration testing. For this, use the web environment property.

  • In addition, it produces the ApplicationContext that we need in our tests.

  • When simulating a database, the h2 in-memory DB is an excellent choice. Though it is not required, we may imitate database interactions using Mockito.

  • It is advised to use the @TestConfiguration annotation to test particular setups.

Here is an example of Integration testing setup in Spring Framework using @ContextConfiguration and @SpringBootTest annotations: 

@SpringBootTest integration test Example Java

What is @SpringBootTest annotation?

Spring-Boot offers an @SpringBootTest annotation that extends the spring-test component with spring-boot functionality. This annotation works by using @SpringBootApplication to create the ApplicationContext that we utilize in our tests. It launches the embedded webserver, generates a web environment, and then allows integration testing using @Test methods.

@SpringBootTest annotation does not launch a server by default. To fine-tune how your tests run, we'll need to add the web environment property. 

There are various options:
  • Mock: (This is the default option)Creates a mock web environment by loading a web ApplicationContext.

  • RANDOM PORT: Provides a genuine web environment by loading a WebServerApplicationContext. The embedded server is started and listens on a port that is chosen at random. For the integration test, this is the one to utilize.

  • DEFINED PORT: Provides a genuine web environment by loading a WebServerApplicationContext.

  • NONE: Uses SpringApplication to load an ApplicationContext, but does not offer a web environment.

The @ContextConfiguration annotation was used in the Spring Test Framework to identify which spring @Configuration to load. Spring-boot, on the other hand, does not require it since it looks for the primary configuration when none is specified.

In addition to the application's basic configuration, we may utilize a nested @TestConfiguration class to change the primary configuration.

Now, enough of the theoretical talking. Let's set up our application and perform the same!

3. Setting up our Spring Boot Application for Testing

Let's create a small REST API application and explore how integration tests can be written for it. We'll develop integration tests for the controller and construct a Cricketer API to generate and get Cricketer records. We'll use the famous in-memory h2 DB for our tests.


Here is our Controller class which uses @RestController to handle REST API requests:

public class CricketerController {
    private CricketerService cricketerService;

    public ResponseEntity<Void> createCricketer() {
        List<Cricketer> cricketers =  cricketerService.createCricketer();

        URI location = ServletUriComponentsBuilder.fromCurrentRequest().path(

        return ResponseEntity.created(location).build();

    public Cricketer retrieveCricketer(@PathVariable Integer cricketerId) {
        return cricketerService.retrieveCricketer(cricketerId);




public class CricketerService {

    private CricketerRepository repository;

    public List<Cricketer> createCricketer() {
        List<Cricketer> cricketers = new ArrayList<Cricketer>();
        List<Cricketer> savedCricketers = new ArrayList<Cricketer>();

        cricketers.add(new Cricketer("ABD", "11"));
        cricketers.add(new Cricketer("Virat King Kohli", "7"));
        cricketers.add(new Cricketer("Rohit Sharma", "10"));
        Iterable<Cricketer> itrCricketers=repository.saveAll(cricketers);
        return savedCricketers;
    public Cricketer retrieveCricketer(Integer cricketerId) {
        return repository.findById(cricketerId).orElse(new Cricketer());




public interface CricketerRepository extends CrudRepository<Cricketer, Integer>{


How to perform integration tests with @SpringBootTest in web application in Spring

Out Test Class:

Now, let's see how our test class looks like Spring:

@SpringBootTest(webEnvironment = SpringBootTest.WebEnvironment.RANDOM_PORT)
public class CricketerControllerTests {

    private int port;

    TestRestTemplate restTemplate = new TestRestTemplate();

    HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();
    public void testCreateCricketer() throws Exception {
        HttpEntity<String> entity = new HttpEntity<String>(null, headers);

        ResponseEntity<String> response =
        createURLWithPort("/cricketers"), HttpMethod.POST, entity, String.class);

        String actual = response.getHeaders().get(HttpHeaders.LOCATION).get(0);


    public void testRetrieveCricketer() throws Exception {
        HttpEntity<String> entity = new HttpEntity<String>(null, headers);

        ResponseEntity<String> response =
        createURLWithPort("/cricketers/1"), HttpMethod.GET, entity, String.class);

        String expected = "{\"id\":1,\"name\":\"ABD\",\"description\":\"11\"}";

        JSONAssert.assertEquals(expected, response.getBody(), false);

    private String createURLWithPort(String uri) {
     return "http://localhost:" + port + uri;


We have used WebEnvironment.RANDOM PORT to spin up the application on a random port in the previous code. @LocalServerPort aids in reading the current port and constructing the URI to be accessed by the template class. Because we want ResponseEntity as a return type, we utilized the exchange() function.

Now, we can use @MockBean and @Autowired too to test our code flows and get any Service/Beans.


That's all about how to test Spring Boot application and how to write integration test in Spring based application using @SpringBootTest annotation. We learned how to construct tests that test several levels of applications in a single test in this spring boot integration testing example using Junit 5. 

They test whether the controller and persistence layers communicate properly. While we are not needed to utilize a real webserver to operate the application during integration testing, we may certainly use Spring boot's embedded servers.

There are a lot of benefits of doing Integration testing as it not only test your application end to end but also gives you opportunity to test multiple components together. It complements Unit testing by also including Spring framework in testing and it can be simply achieved by combining JUnit with @ContextConfiguration annotation. Though it ignore Spring MVC components which is one of its limitation. 

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Thanks for reading this article so far. If you found this Java + Spring Boot + Integration Testing Tutorial useful and helpful then please share them with your colleagues and friends. If you have any questions or feedback then please drop a note.          

P. S. - If you are new to Spring Boot and want to learn about Spring Boot and looking for a free Spring Boot online course, I also recommend you join the Introducing Spring Boot (FREE ) class by Dan Vega on Udemy. It's one of the best free courses to learn Spring Boot for Java developers. 

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