How to Create a Microservice using Quarkus in Java? Example Tutorial

Hello guys, Microservices architecture has become increasingly popular due to its flexibility, scalability, and ease of maintenance. When it comes to building microservices in Java, Quarkus is an excellent framework that provides a lightweight, fast, and efficient runtime. In this tutorial, we will explore how to create a microservice application using Quarkus in Java, along with a comprehensive step-by-step example. In last few articles, we have seen how to create Microservices using Spring Boot and Microservices using gRPC and in this article, we are going to see how to create a Microservice architecture using Quarkus framework. 

How to create a Microservice application using Quarkus in Java? 

Before we start with coding and steps for creating Microservices in Java using Quarkus, let's first understand what is Quarkus and what sets apart it from traditional Java framework like Spring Boot. 

What is Quarkus?

Quarkus is a modern, cloud-native framework designed for building Java applications. It focuses on delivering fast startup times and low memory usage while still offering the flexibility and productivity of traditional Java development. Quarkus leverages ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation and native image generation to achieve these performance optimizations.

Step-by-Step Tutorial: Creating a Microservice Application with Quarkus in Java

To demonstrate the process of building a microservice application using Quarkus, we will create a simple example of a user management system with two microservices: a User Service for CRUD operations and an Authentication Service for user authentication.

How to create a Microservice application using Quarkus in Java? Along With Example Tutorial


Java Development Kit (JDK) installed (version 11 or higher).
Apache Maven installed

Step 1: Set Up the Development Environment:
Start by setting up your development environment. Install the necessary software, including JDK and Maven, and ensure that they are properly configured.

Step 2: Create the Quarkus Projects:
Create two separate Quarkus projects for the User Service and Authentication Service using the Quarkus Maven archetype. Open a terminal or command prompt and run the following commands:

mvn io.quarkus:quarkus-maven-plugin:2.3.0.Final:create -DprojectGroupId=com.example 
-DprojectArtifactId=user-service -Dextensions="resteasy, resteasy-jackson"

mvn io.quarkus:quarkus-maven-plugin:2.3.0.Final:create -DprojectGroupId=com.example
 -DprojectArtifactId=auth-service -Dextensions="resteasy, resteasy-jackson"

These commands create two Quarkus projects with the necessary dependencies for building RESTful APIs using Resteasy.

Step 3: Define the User Service API:
In the user-service project, navigate to the src/main/java/com/example directory and create a new package called resource. Inside the resource package, create a new Java class called UserResource. This class will serve as the RESTful API controller for the User Service.

Implement the necessary CRUD operations (e.g., create, read, update, delete) using annotations provided by the Resteasy framework. Add appropriate request mappings and methods to handle the user management operations.

Step 4: Define the Authentication Service API:
Similarly, in the auth-service project, create a new package called resource in the src/main/java/com/example directory. Inside the resource package, create a new Java class called AuthResource. This class will handle the authentication-related endpoints.

Implement the necessary authentication endpoints using Resteasy annotations. For example, you can create a login endpoint that accepts credentials and returns a JWT token upon successful authentication.

Step 5: Build and Run the Microservices:
In each project, use Maven to build and run the microservices. Open a terminal or command prompt, navigate to the root directory of each project, and run the following command:

mvn clean compile quarkus:dev

This command compiles the code, resolves dependencies, and starts the microservices in development mode. Quarkus provides hot-reloading, allowing you to make changes to the code and immediately see the changes reflected without restarting the application.

Step 6: Test the Microservices:
With the microservices up and running, it's time to test the functionality. You can use tools like cURL, Postman, or any other API testing tool to interact with the RESTful APIs exposed by the microservices.

Send HTTP requests to the appropriate endpoints to create, retrieve, update, and delete users through the User Service API. Similarly, test the authentication endpoints provided by the Authentication Service API.

Step 7: Enhance the Microservices:
The tutorial example we've covered so far provides a basic starting point. To make the microservice application more robust and production-ready, you can consider the following enhancements:

Data Persistence: Integrate a database, such as PostgreSQL or MySQL, to store user information persistently. Use JPA (Java Persistence API) or an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) framework like Hibernate to interact with the database.

Authentication and Authorization: Implement secure authentication and authorization mechanisms. Enhance the authentication service to validate user credentials, generate JWT tokens, and protect sensitive endpoints.

Error Handling: Implement proper error handling mechanisms and return meaningful error responses to the clients. Consider using custom exceptions and appropriate HTTP status codes to communicate errors effectively.

Logging and Monitoring: Integrate logging frameworks like Log4j or SLF4J to capture important information and errors during runtime. Use monitoring tools like Prometheus or Grafana to gather performance metrics and monitor the health of your microservices.

Containerization and Deployment: Containerize your microservices using Docker and use container orchestration platforms like Kubernetes for deployment. This allows for easy scaling, management, and deployment of your microservice application.

Step 8: Implement Service-to-Service Communication:
In a microservice architecture, it's common for services to communicate with each other to fulfill complex business requirements. Quarkus provides several options for service-to-service communication, such as REST APIs, messaging systems like Apache Kafka, and gRPC.

Choose the appropriate communication mechanism based on your application's needs. For example, if you require high-performance and efficient communication, consider using gRPC, which offers bi-directional streaming and protocol buffers serialization.

Step 9: Implement Service Discovery and Load Balancing:
As the number of microservices in your application grows, it becomes essential to manage service discovery and load balancing. Quarkus integrates with service discovery tools like Consul, Eureka, or Kubernetes Service Discovery to automate service registration and discovery.

Implement service registration in your microservices and configure load balancing mechanisms to distribute incoming requests across multiple instances of the same service. This ensures scalability, fault tolerance, and efficient resource utilization.

Step 10: Implement Circuit Breakers and Resilience Patterns:
To build resilient microservices, it's crucial to handle failures gracefully and prevent cascading failures across the system. Quarkus provides integrations with libraries like Hystrix or SmallRye Fault Tolerance to implement circuit breakers, retries, timeouts, and fallback mechanisms.

Implement circuit breakers to monitor the health of dependent services and prevent excessive requests when they are experiencing issues. Apply resilience patterns to handle failures and gracefully degrade the system's functionality when necessary.

Step 11: Implement Automated Testing:
Automated testing is crucial to ensure the correctness and stability of your microservices. Quarkus provides a testing framework that allows you to write unit tests, integration tests, and end-to-end tests for your microservices.

Write comprehensive tests that cover different scenarios and edge cases. Use tools like JUnit, Mockito, or Rest Assured to mock dependencies, simulate different conditions, and validate the behavior and responses of your microservices.

Step 12: Continuous Integration and Deployment:
Implement a robust CI/CD (Continuous Integration and Deployment) pipeline to automate the build, testing, and deployment of your microservices. Use tools like Jenkins, GitLab CI, or Travis CI to set up a pipeline that triggers builds and tests upon code changes.

Integrate the pipeline with containerization platforms like Docker and deployment platforms like Kubernetes to automatically deploy the microservices to the target environment. This ensures a smooth and efficient development workflow.


That's all about how to create Microservices in Java using Quarkus framework. Quarkus provides an efficient and lightweight framework for building microservice applications in Java. With its focus on fast startup times and low memory usage, Quarkus allows you to develop scalable and high-performance microservices.

In this tutorial, we explored the step-by-step process of creating a microservice application using Quarkus in Java. From setting up the development environment to defining the API endpoints, building and running the microservices, and testing their functionality, you learned how to leverage Quarkus for microservice development.

Remember that this tutorial provides a starting point, and there are numerous additional features and best practices to consider when building production-ready microservices. These include data persistence, security, error handling, logging, monitoring, and containerization.

By leveraging the capabilities of Quarkus and following best practices, you can build resilient, scalable, and efficient microservice architectures in Java. Quarkus enables you to develop microservices that meet the demands of modern applications, ensuring a smooth and performant experience for both developers and end-users.

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