Problem: You have given an array of objects, which could be an array of integers and or array of Strings or any object which implements the Comparable interface. How would you find duplicate elements from an array? Can you solve this problem in O(n) complexity? This is actually one of the frequently asked coding problems from Java interviews. There are multiple ways to solve this problem and you will learn two popular ways here, first the brute force way, which involves comparing each element with every other element and other which uses a hash table like data structure to reduce the time complexity of problem from quadratic to linear, of course by trading off some space complexity. This also shows that how by using a suitable data structure you can come up with a better algorithm to solve a problem. If you are preparing for programming job interviews, then I also suggest you take a look at Cracking the Coding Interview book, which contains 150 programming questions and solutions, good enough to do well on any programming job interviews e.g. Java, C++, Python or Ruby.

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In the first solution, we compare each element of the array to every other element. If it matches then its duplicate and if it doesn't then there are no duplicates. This is also known as

Here is the code to find duplicate elements using brute force algorithm in Java:

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Second solution demonstrate how you can use a suitable data structure to come up with better algorithm to solve the same problem. If you know, in Java, the Set interface doesn't allow duplicates and its based upon hash table data structure so insertion take O(1) time in average case. By using HashSet, a general purpose Set implementation, we can find duplicates in O(n) time. All you need to do is iterate over array using advanced for loop and insert every element into HashSet. Since it allows only unique elements, add() method will fail and return false when you try to add duplicates. Bingo, you have find the duplicate element, just print them off to console, as shown in following program:

Here is the Java program to combine both solution, you can try running this solution on Eclipse IDE and see how it works. You can also write JUnit test to see our solution work in all cases especially corner cases like empty array, array with null etc.

That's all about

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The Coding Interview Bootcamp: Algorithms + Data Structures

Data Structures and Algorithms: Deep Dive Using Java

Algorithms and Data Structures - Part 1 and 2

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__Logic of Solution 1 - finding duplicates in O(n^2)__

In the first solution, we compare each element of the array to every other element. If it matches then its duplicate and if it doesn't then there are no duplicates. This is also known as __Logic of Solution 1 - finding duplicates in O(n^2)__

**brute force algorithm**to find duplicate objects from Java array. The time complexity of this problem is O(n^2) or quadratic. When you give this solution to your interviewer, he will surely ask you to come up with O(n) time complexity algorithm, which we will see next.Here is the code to find duplicate elements using brute force algorithm in Java:

public static Set<Integer> findDuplicates(int[] input) { Set<Integer> duplicates = new HashSet<Integer>(); for (int i = 0; i < input.length; i++) { for (int j = 1; j < input.length; j++) { if (input[i] == input[j] && i != j) { // duplicate element found duplicates.add(input[i]); break; } } } return duplicates; }Here instead of printing the duplicate elements, we have stored them in a Set and returned from the method, but if Interviewer doesn't ask you to return duplicates then you can simply print them into console as I have done in next solution.

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__Logic of Solution 2 - finding duplicates in O(n)__

Second solution demonstrate how you can use a suitable data structure to come up with better algorithm to solve the same problem. If you know, in Java, the Set interface doesn't allow duplicates and its based upon hash table data structure so insertion take O(1) time in average case. By using HashSet, a general purpose Set implementation, we can find duplicates in O(n) time. All you need to do is iterate over array using advanced for loop and insert every element into HashSet. Since it allows only unique elements, add() method will fail and return false when you try to add duplicates. Bingo, you have find the duplicate element, just print them off to console, as shown in following program:public static <T extends Comparable<T>> void getDuplicates(T[] array) { Set<T> dupes = new HashSet<T>(); for (T i : array) { if (!dupes.add(i)) { System.out.println("Duplicate element in array is : " + i); } } }This solution also demonstrate how you can use Generics to write type-safe code in Java. This method will work on any type of Java array e.g. Array with Integer, Array with String or any object which implements Comparable interface, but will not work with primitive array because they are not object in Java.

__Java Program to find duplicate elements in Java using Generics__Here is the Java program to combine both solution, you can try running this solution on Eclipse IDE and see how it works. You can also write JUnit test to see our solution work in all cases especially corner cases like empty array, array with null etc.

import java.util.Arrays; import java.util.HashSet; import java.util.Set; import static java.lang.System.*; /** * Java Program to find duplicate elements in an array. In this program, you * will learn two solution to find duplicate elements in integer array e.g. * brute force, by using HashSet data structure. * * @author java67 */ public class DuplicatesFromArray{ public static void main(String args[]) { int[] withDuplicates = { 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3, 6 }; Set<Integer> duplicates = findDuplicates(withDuplicates); out.println("input array is : " + Arrays.toString(withDuplicates)); out.println("Duplicate elements found in array are : " + duplicates); // now calling our generic method to find duplicates String[] myArray = { "ab", "cd", "ab", "de", "cd" }; out.println("input string array is : " + Arrays.toString(myArray)); getDuplicates(myArray); } /** * Complexity of this solution is O(n^2) * * @param input * @return */ public static Set<Integer> findDuplicates(int[] input) { Set<Integer> duplicates = new HashSet<Integer>(); for (int i = 0; i < input.length; i++) { for (int j = 1; j < input.length; j++) { if (input[i] == input[j] && i != j) { // duplicate element found duplicates.add(input[i]); break; } } } return duplicates; } /** * Generic method to find duplicates in array. Complexity of this method is * O(n) because we are using HashSet data structure. * * @param array * @return */ public static <T extends Comparable<T>> void getDuplicates(T[] array) { Set<T> dupes = new HashSet<T>(); for (T i : array) { if (!dupes.add(i)) { System.out.println("Duplicate element in array is : " + i); } } } } Output : input array is : [1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3, 6] Duplicate elements found in array are : [1, 2, 3] input string array is : [ab, cd, ab, de, cd] Duplicate element in array is : ab Duplicate element in array is : cd

That's all about

**how to find duplicate elements in an array**. You have now learned two ways to solve this problem in Java. First solution is the brute force algorithm which is demonstrate by finding duplicate element on integer array, but you can use the logic to find duplicate on any kind of array. Second solution uses HashSet data structure to reduce the time complexity from O(n^2) to O(n) and it also shows you can write generic methods to find duplicates on any object array.###
__Other Coding Problems for Practice__

__Other Coding Problems for Practice__

- How to print Pyramid pattern in Java? (solution)
- How to check if a given number is prime or not? (solution)
- How to solve FizzBuzz problem in Java? (solution)
- Write a program to print highest frequency word from a text file? (solution)
- How to remove duplicate elements from ArrayList in Java? (solution)
- How to find if given String is palindrome in Java? (solution)
- How to find a missing number in a sorted array? (solution)
- How to calculate factorial using recursion and iteration? (solution)
- How do you reverse word of a sentence in Java? (solution)
- How to find duplicate characters from String in Java? (solution)
- How to reverse an int variable in Java? (solution)
- How to check if a year is a leap year in Java? (answer)
- Write code to implement Bubble sort algorithm in Java? (code)
- Top 10 Programming problems from Java Interviews? (article)
- Write code to implement Quicksort algorithm in Java? (algorithm)
- How do you swap two integers without using temporary variable? (solution)
- Write a program to check if a number is power of two or not? (solution)
- How to reverse String in Java without using StringBuffer? (solution)
- Write a program to code insertion sort algorithm in Java (program)

**Further Learning**The Coding Interview Bootcamp: Algorithms + Data Structures

Data Structures and Algorithms: Deep Dive Using Java

Algorithms and Data Structures - Part 1 and 2

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